Design Project Part 2
- Laurillard’s conversational framework
- The role of simulated practice
- The technology employed and future technology
Nurses and Midwifes who take on the extra responsibilities of the Sign off Mentor (SoM) can be defined as ‘a Community of Practice’ (Wenger, 1998). The role began in October 2009 for Nursing and the knowledge and skill base has become a new pedagogy demanding new and innovative methods of assessment in practice. By joining an on-line community via blogging or a Twitter ® feed they can share reflections, experiences of managing failing students (Duffy, 2003), web links and examples of innovative practice. The future design and production of the SoM simulated practice DVD must include these on-line interactive tools to enable a UK wide learning community to flourish.
Laurillard’s conversational framework
This model (Laurillard, 2002) describes the pedagogy underlying the relationship between the SoM supervisor and the aspirant SoM. The learner brings their own experiences of mentoring students to the conversation and the supervisor shares their experience of being a SoM. This relationship will continue past the completion of the simulated practice video package because the Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) Standards (2008) require the aspirant SoM to mentor a final placement student under the supervision of a SoM to complete the process to become a SoM.
The learner and supervisor will view the video scenarios together and discuss the learner’s reflections, which are written, on a PDF notepad at the top of the screen. By discussing the learner’s reflections they will be able to build a new joint understanding of the assessment process and key learning point such as how to manage giving regular constructive feedback to the final placement student. The discussion points also include how to give bad news such as possible failure in practice and managing the impact this will have and how to organise additional support for the failing student with their Tutor.
The role of simulated practice
The pedagogic purpose of the simulated practice video is to allow the learner to immerse him or herself in the on-screen world. The dramatic constructions are based on real world events and include deliberately inserted but hidden errors for the viewing learner to think about and stimulate thought and debates with their supervisor. The NMC (2008) states that the aspirant SoM is not learning anything but instead is bring their previous experience and knowledge and applying it in a new context. The pedagogy, which applies to this situation, is constructivism (Delgarmo, 2001) the aspirant is building a new understanding of the role they are preparing for on the foundation platform of their previous knowledge and experience. The role of the supervisor is principally as a knowledgeable guide.
A major purpose of simulation is to practice difficult skills safely without risk to self or others by providing a life like approximation of real world events. QA, an educational technology company recently demonstrated a good example of this in practice (QA, 2012) The American Army developed with them a simulated practice package using SIMs to prepare combat Medical Teams for deployment in Afghanistan. The users adopt key team roles and manipulate the on screen characters in real time saving the life of a wounded soldier. In use they have to meet a very prescriptive standard before they then practice with real life participants.
The technology employed and future technology
The video scenarios when editing was completed where handed over to a leaning technologist empathising the joint working of the facilitator and the technologist. The learning and assessment material was originally designed and created using Microsoft PowerPoint ® for Mac 2011. This included suggested elements for reflections and basically constructed quizzes. The technologist then exported the Power Point work into Adobe Captivate ®, soft ware that converts Power Point into e learning. The design brief also included the need to ensure that the DVD would be multi platform and would play without difficulty. The technology must not get in the way of learning and should require no more technical ability than loading a DVD into the drive.
To increase user ability and interactivity and communication with other aspirant SoMs and expert currently practicing SoMs a Blog and
Twitter Feed ® will be added to the DVD.
To increase portability and to enable use as a truly mobile learning technology the product will be adapted to use as a mobile application for both iPhone and Android phones. With the imminent role out of the 4G mobile network and the anticipated reduction and increased availability of
Smart phones (Garside, 2013) the possibility is presented of a greater take up. These developments along with the commercial availability of the DVD will allow its use as any time, any where product which meets the needs of busy working Nurses and Midwifes juggling home, work, study and leisure (Hinsliff, 2013)
Koller (2012) recommends that on line learning should include an assessment of learning every four minutes to ensure that learning has taken place. The DVD includes a knowledge quiz at the beginning to test the learners current level of knowledge and only the correct answer will be accepted. This ensures that random answers until the right button is clicked will not be permitted. If the user does not know the correct answer the system redirects them the NMC Standards (2008) compelling them to read them to find the correct information otherwise they cannot proceed with the activities. The user writing reflections in a PDF notepad, which is tagged to direct and collate the reflections, provides the other form of assessment.
To meet local Higher Education approval the DVD needs additional work including the insertion of a key-missing scene. Due to the high cost of filming the scene will be created using static SIMs and speech bubbles. The proximity of text to images is an important element of e learning design (Colvin and Lyons, 2004). An example of this approach to design is provided by a SIM produced by a Company called QA. They developed a SIM to demonstrate good and bad practice in equality and diversity training (QA, 2012).
When local approval has been granted a local company will produce the DVD and Medipex will sell it. The marketing will be done using word of mouth recommendation and promotion at forums and conferences.
Delgarmo, B (2001) Interpretations of constructivism and consequences for computer assisted learning BJET, Vol 32 No 2 pp 183-194
Laurillard, D. (2002) Rethinking University Teaching London: Routledge
Garside, J (2013); ‘Ofcom to name mobile bidders in 4G auction’ Guardian p23
Garside, J (2013); ‘2013 predicted to be year of cheap smartphone’ Guardian p23
Hinsliff, G (2013) ‘The Merge’ The Guardian, G2, 01 January, p.5.
Nursing and Midwifery Nursing and Midwifery Council (2008) ‘Standards to support learning and assessment in practice’ London, Nursing and Midwifery Council
Council Circular (2010) ‘Sign-off mentor criteria’
[Accessed 25th November 2012]
Koller, D, (2012) The Online Revolution: education for everyone
[Accessed 7th January 2013]
[Accessed 6th January 2013]
Wenger, E. (1998) ‘A social theory of learning’: In Communities of practice: meaning and Identity. Cambridge University Press